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    首頁 - 3D - 我國科學家首次試驗驗證三維量子霍爾效應
點擊:192        時間:2019-05-16 09:12:01

  合肥5月14日電(記者常河 通訊員范瓊)中國科學技術大學喬振華課題組與南方科技大學張立源課題組等合作,經過5年多的努力,首次在毫米級的碲化鋯材料上觀測到三維量子霍爾效應,研究成果5月9日發表在國際權威期刊《自然》上,引發學術圈的極大關注。美國國家科學院院士文小剛高度評價這一成果:“這一新的實驗發現,給了我們一個新的材料體系,其中也能產生拓撲序。”

  碲化鋯是一種三維層狀結構的新型材料,具有特殊的熱電性質和反常的電阻對溫度的依賴關系,在上世紀被廣泛關注。近年來,全世界多個實驗室各自制備該材料,并通過多種不同的手段進行探測,希望確定其物理特性。

  霍爾效應描述了當磁場加載到金屬和半導體上時,電力與磁力之間的一種相互關系。1879年發現的霍爾效應這一基礎理論對半導體行業意義深遠,因為它是二極管被發明出來的重要前提。1980年,德國科學家馮·克利青首次在二維體系里發現了量子霍爾效應,改變了傳統學界對物態和相變的理解,并把拓撲的概念引入到物理學研究里,量子霍爾效應也成了學術界的寵兒。

  能否在三維體系中也觀測到量子霍爾效應?1987年,哈佛大學伯特蘭·霍爾珀林教授從理論上預言了三維體系存在量子霍爾效應,并給出了它的測量特征。國際學界將這種現象稱為“三維量子霍爾效應”。然而要觀測到三維量子霍爾效應,必須把電子態調控到量子極限區域,這對測量磁場條件或材料體系的要求異常苛刻,幾十年來,科學界一直未有確鑿的觀測證據。

  從2014年起,南方科技大學張立源團隊開始嘗試實驗研究該體系,希望在拓撲性質研究上有所斬獲,卻意外發現碲化鋯也是研究三維體系的理想材料。2017年年初,從事相同方向理論研究的中國科學技術大學喬振華團隊與張立源團隊開始密切合作,測試分析了難以計數的來自國內外著名研究機構的樣品,終于在該三維宏觀材料上觀測到量子霍爾效應。

  自1980年發現量子霍爾效應后,人們把注意力集中在二維體系里。這次在毫米級的宏觀尺度上實現了三維量子霍爾效應,補全了霍爾效應家族一個重要的拼圖。喬振華認為:“豐富多彩的三維體系,將吸引眾多學者加入到新型的三維量子物態以及相變領域的研究之中,并為霍爾效應家族的發展提供一個全新的領域和視角。”

  140年前的埃德溫·霍爾無法回答經典霍爾效應能做什么。但今天,經典霍爾效應已經融入我們日常生活中,廣泛應用于汽車、家電、手機等行業。三維量子霍爾效應未來有什么樣的應用,我們拭目以待。(來源:中國經濟網)

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